Frank Livingstone was born Dec. 8, 1928, in Winchester, Mass., to Guy P. Livingstone and Margery Brown Livingstone.
Livingstone graduated from Winchester High School in 1946. He then studied at Harvard University, where he graduated in 1950 as a math major. As an undergraduate, he was an average student until his junior year, when he took his first anthropology course and realized it would be his lifelong passion.
After two years in the U.S. Army at the Chemical Center in Fort Dix, N.J., Livingstone began graduate work in the Anthropology Department at U-M, earning a master's degree in 1955 and doctoral degree in 1957. He joined the anthropology faculty in 1958 and rose to the rank of full professor.
Livingstone worked in Liberia, West Africa, to test the correlation between sickle cell anemia and malaria. This work played a central role in changing the field of biological anthropology from a static to a vibrant discipline.
Livingstone also contributed to other sub-disciplines of anthropology. Most notable was his work on race, one of anthropology's most central and troubling problems. Recognition of the importance of Livingstone's work extended beyond the walls of academe and earned him the Martin Luther King Award granted by the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.
Livingstone spent his entire graduate and professional career in the anthropology department, serving for a time as head, and adding his own contributions to the numerous honors enjoyed by one of the country's leading centers in the field. He also served as mentor to dozens of graduate students.
Livingstone officially retired from the anthropology department in 1998. The following year he received the Charles R. Darwin Award for Lifetime Achievement from the American Association of Physical Anthropologists. In 2002, a symposium was held in his honor at the annual meeting of that association.
Frank Livingstone, professor emeritus and pioneering anthropology researcher, died March 21 2005 in Springfield, Ohio, of complications from Parkinson's disease. He was 76. 
NATURAL SELECTION, DISEASE, AND ONGOING HUMAN EVOLUTION, AS ILLUSTRATED BY THE ABO BLOOD GROUPS BY FRANK B. LIVINGSTONE