Serological agglutination test for typhoid fever.
The test is based on the presence of agglutinating antibodies against paratyphoid bacteria in the patient’s serum. It is mainly used for indirect confirmation of salmonellosis (as against typhus abdominalis, paratyphus, and brucelloses), but also for diagnosing infectional diseases like shigelloses, tularaemia and spotted fever.
Bacterial agglutination was discovered by Max von Gruber and Herbert Edward Durham. It was first briefly reported by Durham, and then described by Gruber and Durham. Their discovery was the basis for Widal’s test for typhoid.