In human genetics, Haplogroup E3a (M2) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup.
This haplogroup is restricted to sub-Saharan Africa and descendant populations. It is the single largest Y-chromosome haplogroup in this area.
This haplogroup is a branch of haplogroup E.
The man who gave rise to this lineage may have been born in Africa around 20,000 to 30,000 years ago. His descendants may then have traveled south to sub-Saharan Africa.
Haplogroup E3a is an African lineage. It is currently hypothesized that this haplogroup dispersed eastward and southward from western Africa within the last 3,000 years, by the Bantu agricultural expansion. E3a is also the most common lineage among African Americans.