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In human genetics, Haplogroup E3b (M35) (previously called Hg21) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup with a circum-Mediterranean distribution.

E3b is a branch of haplogroup E. It is believed to have first appeared in Northeast Africa approximately 26,000 years ago and dispersed to the Middle East during the Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic periods. From there, it traveled west with the expansion of Neolithic agriculturalists.

Outside of East Africa, its two most prevalent clades are E-M81 (referred to as the "Berber marker"), which reaches frequencies of up to 80% in North Africa, and E-M78α, which has its highest frequencies in southeastern Europe (up to 30%) but is found throughout the continent, marking a recent expansion from the Balkan Peninsula.

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