In human genetics, Haplogroup J (previously known as HG9 or Eu9/Eu10) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. It is defined by the 12f2.1 genetic marker, or the equivalent M304 marker.
Haplogroup J is believed to have arisen between 10,000 and 15,000 years ago in the Near East. It is a descendant haplogroup of haplogroup F.
The Cohen Modal Haplotype falls in haplogroup J.
It is subdivided into two haplogroups, haplogroup J2, defined by the M172 marker, and haplogroup J1, defined by the M267 marker. There are also some haplogroup J Y-chromosomes that belong to neither J1 nor J2, and are said to be in paragroup J*(xJ1,J2). This means that haplogroup J* includes all of J eXcept[sic] for J1 and J2.
Y chromosomal haplogroup J as a signature of the post-neolithic colonization of Europe
Hum Genet. 2004 Oct;115(5):357-71. Epub 2004 Aug 21.
Di Giacomo F, Luca F, Popa LO, Akar N, Anagnou N, Banyko J, Brdicka R, Barbujani G, Papola F, Ciavarella G, Cucci F, Di Stasi L, Gavrila L, Kerimova MG, Kovatchev D, Kozlov AI, Loutradis A, Mandarino V, Mammi' C, Michalodimitrakis EN, Paoli G, Pappa KI, Pedicini G, Terrenato L, Tofanelli S, Malaspina P, Novelletto A.
- In order to attain a finer reconstruction of the peopling of southern and central-eastern Europe from the Levant, we determined the frequencies of eight lineages internal to the Y chromosomal haplogroup J, defined by biallelic markers, in 22 population samples obtained with a fine-grained sampling scheme. Our results partially resolve a major multifurcation of lineages within the haplogroup. Analyses of molecular variance show that the area covered by haplogroup J dispersal is characterized by a significant degree of molecular radiation for unique event polymorphisms within the haplogroup, with a higher incidence of the most derived sub-haplogroups on the northern Mediterranean coast, from Turkey westward; here, J diversity is not simply a subset of that present in the area in which this haplogroup first originated. Dating estimates, based on simple tandem repeat loci (STR) diversity within each lineage, confirmed the presence of a major population structuring at the time of spread of haplogroup J in Europe and a punctuation in the peopling of this continent in the post-Neolithic, compatible with the expansion of the Greek world. We also present here, for the first time, a novel method for comparative dating of lineages, free of assumptions of STR mutation rates.