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In human genetics, Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroups are haplogroups defined by differences in human mitochondrial DNA. These haplogroups trace the matrilineal inheritance of modern humans back to human origins in Africa and the subsequent spread across the globe.

Known haplogroups are assigned the following letter codes: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, HV, I, J, K, L, L1, L2, L3, M, N, Q, R, T, U, V, W X and Z.

The woman who is at the root of all these groups is the most recent common matrilineal (female-lineage) ancestor of all living humans. She is commonly called Mitochondrial Eve.

Evolutionary relationship

Precise evolutionary relationships between human mitochondrial haplogroups are subject to academic debate.

L1 and its descendants
  • Haplogroup L1
    • Haplogroup L2
      • Haplogroup L2a
      • Haplogroup L2b
      • Haplogroup L2c
      • Haplogroup L2d
    • Haplogroup L3
Descendants of haplogroup L3
  • Haplogroup M
  • Haplogroup N
Descendants of haplogroup M
  • Haplogroup M1
  • Haplogroup CZ
    • Haplogroup C
    • Haplogroup Z
  • Haplogroup D
  • Haplogroup E
  • Haplogroup G,
  • Haplogroup Q
Descendants of haplogroup N
  • Haplogroup N1a
  • Haplogroup N1b
  • Haplogroup A
  • Haplogroup I
  • Haplogroup W
  • Haplogroup X
  • Haplogroup R
  • Haplogroup Y
Descendants of haplogroup R
  • Haplogroup B,
  • Haplogroup F,
  • Haplogroup JT
    • Haplogroup J
    • Haplogroup T
  • Haplogroup U
    • Haplogroup K
    • Haplogroup U1
    • Haplogroup U2
    • Haplogroup U3
    • Haplogroup U4
    • Haplogroup U5
    • Haplogroup U6
  • Haplogroup pre-HV
    • Haplogroup HV
      • Haplogroup H
      • Haplogroup V


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