The INDIVIDUALIST

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Paleoserology

The number of blood group determinants varies considerably between species (eg, greater than 80 in domestic cattle to only 1 in the new world Camelidae). Genetic analysis has shown that the blood factors belong to one or another of a limited number of blood group systems. Some of these systems, similar to the B system of cattle, are enormously complex, whereas others involve but a single blood factor. (1)

Antigens similar to the A and B in man occur in some animals. Such antigens are found, for example,. in the saliva of the horse. In this animal A and B, together, alone, or neither, may occur, thus establishing four groups, probably hereditary, similar to those in man; but the antigens are not present also in the blood, as they are in man (2). In other animals the erythrocytes contain similar, but distinct, antigens. Certain workers have separated A and B into various hypothetical fractions (3) by comparing them with such related antigens. To this hypothetical fractionation the same objection is possible as in the case of related bacterial antigens, although in some cases it may be justified.

The greatest interest for students of human evolution attaches, of course, to the question of blood group factors in the apes and monkeys, and considerable work has been done on this line (4). It has been found that in the higher primates 'substances indistinguishable from the A and B of man may be found; in the gorilla (5) and the monkeys a substance reacting with the anti-B agglutinin, but somewhat different from B, is found.

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Occurrence of blood factors O, A, and B in man and other primates (after Landsteiner). Encircled A and B indicate A-like and B-like antigens reacting with human anti-A and anti-B agglutinins. Encircled A and B with asterisk indicate A-like and B-like antigens found in the tissues and secretions.

From this it is evident that properties related to A and B are by no means restricted to mankind, but are widely distributed through the animal kingdom. There is a striking analogy with the Forssman hapten and with the specific carbohydrates of certain bacteria. Since there is reason to think that the possible chemical variety in the carbohydrate series (to which these antigens all belong, at least in part) is less than in the protein series, this may account for the more marked inter-species reactions observed also in the present instance. The probability of two carbohydrates taken at random being serologically similar would be greater in general than that for two unrelated proteins (6). A carbohydrate which is capable of reacting with either anti-A or anti-B has been isolated from Ascaris (7) and other helminths (8).

It has been found that the higher primates also possess blood structures capable of reacting with antisera for M, but the degree of reaction is often quite different with blood from the same animal when different anti-M sera are used. It does not seem that the M factor is ever lacking in any individuals of a primate species in which it is found, indicating a difference in the genetic mechanism from that operating in man (9,10)). (See however (11).) It is of interest to recall that it was in the course of the study of the M antigen in primates that Landsteiner and Wiener discovered Rh.

Twelve samples of chimpanzee erythrocytes were agglutinated by the commercial polyclonal anti-M reagent of rabbit origin, but none was agglutinated by monoclonal anti-M reagent of murine origin. This, as well as results of absorption experiments, showed that the polyclonal and monoclonal anti-M reagents detect different M epitopes. PubMed

There are eight different designations (1. 1, 1.2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7) within this system, which is currently open-ended. DEA 7 is like human blood group A, of the ABO system, although other DEA antigens have A type qualities as well (12), and anti-B is a common antibody in dogs (13) and their are differences in the reaction of certain species of canines to DEA specific lectins (14).

Over 13 canine blood groups have been described. Eight DEA (Dog Erythrocyte Antigen) types are recognized as international standards. Naturally occurring antibody is found against DEA 3, 5, and 7. DEA 1.1 and 1.2 antibody-antigen interactions result in acute hemolytic transfusion reactions. DEA 3, 5, and 7 antibody-antigen interaction in vivo results in permanent red blood cell sequestration and loss in 3 to 5 days. DEA 4 antibody-antigen interactions produce no effect on red blood cell survival in vivo. A dog possessing DEA 4 and no other antigen is considered a "universal" donor. (15)

Canine DEA antigens are not located anywhere near their human counterparts, and so will not influence physiological functions through gene linkage.Some canine antigens are A-like, but appear much more fucosylated than the human counterparts, imparting more O-like antigenicity than would be found in humans.

There are eight recognized blood groups in the horse: A, C, D, K, P, Q, T, and U. For further information on equine blood groups see the 1964 paper by Stormont. (16)

These are similar to A, B, AB, and O groups found in humans. However, unlike human blood groups, each of the horses' blood groups can exist in one of several forms. For example, a horse that has type A blood may mean type aA1, type aA', type aH, type aA'H, or type a. And, in addition to having a blood type from the A family, a horse may also have a type from each of the other seven groups.

Transferases similar to human ABO blood group (transferase A, alpha 1-3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase, transferase B, alpha 1-3-galactosyltransferase) are found in mice at chromosome: 2; Location: 2 A3 and in rats at Chromosome: 3; Location: 3p12.

European domestic shorthair, Persian mix, Abyssianian, Siamese and British shorthair individuals all belonged to blood type A (100%). Blood type B was found very rarely and only in Persian cats. One-third of the Persian cats were categorised into blood type B, whilst type AB was not found during the study. PubMed

Plasma of the 2 blood-group-B cats contained strong isoagglutinins (greater than 1:8 titer) against type-A cells, thereby allowing their detection in a major cross-match test. Approximately 30% of tested plasma samples from blood-group-A cats had weak isoagglutinins (1:2 titer) against type-B cells. PubMed

Two categories of blood groups, human-type and simian-type, occur in apes and monkeys and can be routinely tested by methods established for grouping human blood. Abundant data have been obtained on blood groups of chimpanzees, baboons and macaques. Studies of populations of animals, both feral and kept in captivity, resulted in the definition of a number of erythrocyte antigens, some of which fall into separate blood group systems. Two complex chimpanzee blood group systems, V-A-B-D and R-C-E-F systems, proved to be counterparts of the human M-N-S and Rh-Hr blood group systems, respectively. Two graded blood group systems were defined in Old World monkeys: the Drh system of macaques and the Bp system of baboons, both linked by at least one specificity shared by either of the blood group systems. PubMed

Chimpanzees have some form of human Rhesus antigen, but lack others and possess unique elements as well.(17)

Full article in PDF

Two categories of blood groups, human-type and simian-type, occur in apes and monkeys and can be routinely tested by methods established for grouping human blood. Abundant data have been obtained on blood groups of chimpanzees, baboons and macaques. Studies of populations of animals, both feral and kept in captivity, resulted in the definition of a number of erythrocyte antigens, some of which fall into separate blood group systems. Two complex chimpanzee blood group systems, V-A-B-D and R-C-E-F systems, proved to be counterparts of the human M-N-S and Rh-Hr blood group systems, respectively. Two graded blood group systems were defined in Old World monkeys: the Drh system of macaques and the Bp system of baboons, both linked by at least one specificity shared by either of the blood group systems. (PubMed)

Chimpanzees typically posess an A antigen, and the O phenotype is almost completely absent; neither do they possess B antigen. The other great ape, the gorilla has typically has the B antigen, the O phenotype is almost completely absent, but do no possess the A antigen. In both these species, there is no AB phenotype in either.

In New World monkey species Aotus infulatus showed monomorphism, exhibiting only the B blood group. Saimiri sciureus exhibited the A (67) and AB (7) phenotypes. All four phenotypes have been found in C. apella: O (8), A (52), B (19) and AB (17). The titers of ABH substances varied among the species and phenotypes. The B-like agglutinogen, common to all New World monkey species tested, was detected in the red blood cells. PubMed

In the ABO blood group system, humans and chimpanzees both have A blood group antigens, but the DNA nucleotide sequences are different. the differences are not minor.

Surprisingly, humans and gorillas both have blood group B, and their DNA nucleotide sequences are pretty much identical, with only minor differences.

Chickens possess to allelic variants of the huamn type A antigen, A2 and A4. PubMed B blood group is a genetic markers of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) of the fowl,which influences resistance to Marek's disease. PubMed

The polymorphic systems in cattle include the A, B, C, F, J, L, M, S, and Z polymorphisms. There appear to be relationships between milk protein polymorphisms and percent solids-not-fat and protein deviations; beta-casein and kappa-casein alleles had statistically significant associations with these traits. The F system was significant for percent fat deviations, whereas J x L system interactions were significant for all traits. Degree of heterozygosity over the 14 systems was positively associated with percent protein deviations. PubMed

Antigens belonging to systems A, B, C, F, S, R, T, Z and the polymorphic traits genetically controlled from loci Tf, Cp, Am and Hb were studied for possible links to the parameters of acid-base balance and concentration of 13 metabolic components. Of the 21 parameters tested, statistically significant differences were found in 11 parameters between some alleles of the C, FV, T, Z and Hb systems. Pub Med

Cats have naturally occurring alloantibodies; however, dogs do not appear to have clinically significant naturally occurring alloantibodies. PubMed

Parts reprinted from Boyd, WC. Fundamentals of Immunology Third Edition 1956, Interscience.


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12. Symons M, Bell K. Anim Genet 1991;22(3):227-35 Expansion of the canine A blood group system.

13. Symons M, Bell K. Anim Genet 1992;23(6):509-15 Canine blood groups: description of 20 specificities.

14. Andrews GA, Chavey PS, Smith JE. Res Vet Sci 1992 Nov;53(3):315-9 Reactivity of lichen lectins with blood typed canine erythrocytes.

15. http://www.dadamo.com/bloggers/ask/archives/00000337.htm

16. Stormont C, Suzuki Y. Genetics. 1964 Nov;50:915-29. GENETIC SYSTEMS OF BLOOD GROUPS IN HORSES. PMID: 14239777

17. A S Wiener, J Moor-Jankowski, E B Gordon, and C H Kratochvi Individual differences in chimpanzee blood, demonstrable with absorbed human anti-Rh0 sera.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1966 August; 56(2): 458–462.

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