The INDIVIDUALIST

A Wiki about biochemical individuality

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Anthropometry

Anthropometry (Greek ανθρωπος, man, and μετρον, measure, literally meaning "measurement of humans"), in physical anthropology, refers to the measurement of living human individuals for the purposes of understanding human physical variation.

Archaeogenetics

Archaeogenetics refers to the application of the techniques of molecular population genetics to the study of the human past. The topic has its origins in the study of human blood groups and the realisation that this classical genetic marker provides information about linguistic and ethnic groupings. Early work in this field included that of Ludwik and Hanka Hirszfeld, William Boyd and Arthur Mourant. From the 1960s onwards, Luca Cavalli-Sforza used classical genetic markers to examine the prehistoric population of Europe, culminating in the publication of The History and Geography of Human Genes in 1994.

Biochemistry

Biochemistry is the study of the chemistry of life, a bridge between biology and chemistry that studies how complex chemical reactions give rise to life. It is a hybrid branch of chemistry which specialises in the chemical processes in living organisms.

Concepts

A concept is an abstract idea or a mental symbol, typically associated with a corresponding representation in language or symbology, that denotes all of the objects in a given category or class of entities, events, phenomena, or relationships between them.

Generative Science

The root of all generative science is the quality of emergence and the process of self-organization. If we can summarize holism as the "whole is greater than the sum," then emergence might be paraphrased as "levels of significance arise with new hierarchies." Emergence is central to the theories of integrative levels and of complex systems. These properties allow for a holistic interpretation of events, versus the more common linear interpretation seen in reductionism, the heretofore dominant medical worldview.

Genomics

Genomics is the study of an organism's genome and the use of the genes. It deals with the systematic use of genome information, associated with other data, to provide answers in biology, medicine, and industry.

Genomics has the potential of offering new therapeutic methods for the treatment of some diseases, as well as new diagnostic methods. Other applications are in the food and agriculture sectors. The major tools and methods related to genomics are bioinformatics, genetic analysis, measurement of gene expression, and determination of gene function.

Glycomics

Glycomics, or glycobiology is a discipline of biology that deals with the structure and function of oligosaccharides (chains of sugars). The term glycomics is derived from the chemical prefix for sweetness or a sugar, "glyco-", and was formed to follow the naming convention established by genomics (which deals with genes) and proteomics (which deals with proteins). The identity of the entirety of carbohydrates in an organism is thus collectively referred to as the glycome.

Immunology

The branch of biomedicine concerned with the structure and function of the immune system, innate and acquired immunity, the bodily distinction of self from nonself, and laboratory techniques involving the interaction of antigens with specific antibodies.

Lectinology

The study of lectins. The hour of birth of "lectinology" may be defined as the description of the agglutinating properties of ricin, by Herrmann Stillmark in 1888, however, the modern era of lectinology began almost 100 years later in 1972 with the purification of different plant lectins by Sharon and Lis. The idea to use lectins for drug delivery came in 1988 from Woodley and Naisbett, who proposed the use of tomato lectin to target the luminal surface of the small intestine.

Linguistics

Linguistics is scholarly study of the languages and cultures of the peoples of the world. It embraces the cultural, historical, and philological aspects of language study, including the analyses of texts and discourse; studies of semantic systems and cultural classifications and the analysis of linguistic prehistory and genetic classification.

Lipidomics

Lipidomics is the large-scale study of non-water-soluble metabolites (lipids). Key technologies used in lipidomics research include electrospray ionization, mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Lipids represent key signaling molecules which control, or are (bio)-markers of, physiological and disease processes. They are also key structural components of cellular membranes. Lipidomics is thus a subset of metabolomics that aims to detect and quantify all lipid species within a biological sample

Metabolomics

Metabolomics is defined as the "systematic study of the unique chemical fingerprints that specific cellular processes leave behind" - specifically, the study of their small-molecule metabolite profiles.

Nutrigenomics

Nutrigenomics (nutritional genomics) is the application of the sciences of genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics to human nutrition, especially the relationship between nutrition and health. Nutrition and health research is focussed on the prevention of disease by optimising and maintaining cellular, tissue, organ and whole-body homeostasis. Nutrigenomics is associated with the issue of personalized nutrition, since claims are being made that differences in genotype should result in differences in the diet and health relationship.

Paleoserology

A branch of anthropology that is concerned with the characteristics of ancient environments and with their relationships to immunologic and hematologic function. The anthropological uses of the serological discoveries began as an effort to find a more scientific definition of race based on differing distribution of blood types. By 1940 and after several hundred studies that tested over a million subjects, researchers failed in achieving this goal. The data produced, how ever, were largely the basis for the development of human population genetics in the late 1930s and 1940s which redefined humans into gene pools instead of races.

Pathology

The scientific study of the nature of disease and its causes, processes, development, and consequences. Also called pathobiology. The anatomic or functional manifestations of a disease: the pathology of cancer.

Pharmacology

Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and logos (λόγος) meaning science) is the study of how chemical substances interact with living systems. If substances have medicinal properties, they are considered pharmaceuticals. The field encompasses drug composition and properties, interactions, toxicology, therapy, and medical applications and antipathogenic capabilities.

Physiology

Physiology (in Greek physis = nature and logos = word) is the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms.

Polymorphism

The occurrence of different forms, stages, or types in individual organisms or in organisms of the same species, independent of sexual variations. Polymorphism literally means 'having many forms.'

References

These are the individual scientific abstracts and references that are included within the specific pertinent topics.

Serology

Serology is a medical blood test to detect the presence of antibodies, such as antibodies produced against the envelope antigen of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). A serology may be performed when an infection is suspected. There are several serology techniques that can be used depending on the suspected antibodies. Serology techniques include agglutination, precipitation, complement-fixation and fluorescent antibodies..

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