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Glycomics

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Description

N-linked glycosylation of some proteins is required for proper folding. The N-linked glycosylation process occurs in eukaryotes and widely in archaea, but very rarely in prokaryotes.

For N-linked oligosaccharides, a 14-sugar precursor is first added to the asparagine in the polypeptide chain of the target protein. The structure of this precursor is common to most eukaryotes, and contains 3 glucose, 9 mannose, and 2 N-acetylglucosamine molecules. A complex set of reactions attaches this branched chain to a carrier molecule called dolichol, and then it is transferred to the appropriate point on the polypeptide chain as it is translocated into the ER lumen.

There are two major types of N-linked saccharides: high-mannose oligosaccharides, and complex oligosaccharides (Alberts et. al., Ch 13, pg 604). High-mannose is, in essence, just two N-acetylglucosamines with many mannose residues, often almost as many as are seen in the precursor oligosaccharides before it is attached to the protein. Complex oligosaccharides are so named because they can contain almost any number of the other types of saccharides, including more than the original two N-acetylglucosamines. Proteins can be glycosylated by both types of oligos on different portions of the protein. Whether an oligosaccharide is high-mannose or complex is thought to depend on its accessibility to saccharide-modifying proteins in the Golgi. If the saccharide is relatively inaccessible, it will most likely stay in its original high-mannose form. If it is accessible, then it is likely that many of the mannose residues will be cleaved off and the saccharide will be further modified by the addition of other types of group as discussed above.

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The oligosaccharide chain is attached by oligosaccharyl transferase to asparagine occurring in the tripeptide sequence Asn-X-Ser or Asn-X-Thr, where X could be any amino acid except Pro. This sequence is known as a glycosylation sequon. After attachment, once the protein is correctly folded, the three glucose residues are removed from the chain and the protein is available for export from the ER. The glycoprotein thus formed is then transported to the Golgi where removal of further mannose residues may take place. It should be noted, however, that glycosylation itself does not seem to be as necessary for correct transport targeting of the protein, as one might think.

Studies involving drugs that block certain steps in glycosylation, or mutant cells deficient in a glycosylation enzyme, still produce otherwise-structurally-normal proteins that are correctly targeted, and this interference does not seem to interfere severely with the viability of the cells. Mature glycoproteins may contain a variety of oligomannose N-linked oligosaccharides containing between 5 and 9 mannose residues. Further removal of mannose residues leads to a 'core' structure containing 3 mannose, and 2 N-acetylglucosamine residues, which may then be elongated with a variety of different monosaccharides including galactose, N-acetyl glucosamine, N-acetylgalactosamine, fucose and [sialic acid].[1]

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