Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) comes in two variants: alpha and beta.
- TNF-alpha is a major immune response-- modifying cytokine produced primarily by activated macrophages. TNF-alpha increases cellular responsiveness to growth factors and induces signaling pathways that lead to proliferation.
- TNF-beta, produced by cytotoxic T-cells, is characterized by its ability to kill a number of different cell types and induce other to differentiate into other forms which result in their death.
TNF tumor necrosis factor (TNF superfamily, member 2)
- Official Symbol: TNF
- Name: tumor necrosis factor (TNF superfamily, member 2)
- Gene type: protein coding
- Gene name: TNF
- Gene description: tumor necrosis factor (TNF superfamily, member 2)
- Chromosome: 6; Location: 6p21.3
- Organism: Homo sapiens
- Gene aliases: DIF; TNFA; TNFSF2; TNF-alpha
This gene encodes a multifunctional proinflammatory cytokine that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily. This cytokine is mainly secreted by macrophages. It can bind to, and thus functions through its receptors TNFRSF1A/TNFR1 and TNFRSF1B/TNFBR. This cytokine is involved in the regulation of a wide spectrum of biological processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, lipid metabolism, and coagulation. This cytokine has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including autoimmune diseases, insulin resistance, and cancer. Knockout studies in mice also suggested the neuroprotective function of this cytokine.
One of the main immune system Growth Factors.
TNF-alpha is a critical part of the rejection process that occurs when someone is transfused with the wrong blood type.
- Davenport RD, Strieter RM, Kunkel SL Red cell ABO incompatibility and production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha. Br J Haematol 1991 Aug;78(4):540-4